D.B. Thomas, Weslaco Texas|16 March, 2020
What is there about the JFK assassination that invokes such heated denial? Is it something akin to what Knittel2 calls the “Historical Uncanny” in reference to holocaust deniers; that the truth is too uncomfortable? Have we been propagandized by the mainstream media3 to think that belief in conspiracy is a form of sociopathy? Is it refusal to accept that Earl Warren or the honorable men that sat on his Commission would have covered up a crime? The former Chief Justice provided the answer to that question in his autobiographical account4 of his decision to accept the chairmanship as from a need to avoid nuclear war by convincing the public of the truth; that there was no communist conspiracy. And need we remind everyone that three5 of the six Warren Commissioners later renounced the Commission’s findings? Or that the most recent official investigation of the assassination by the United States Congress6 concluded that John F. Kennedy’s death was the result of a conspiracy? This vocal minority denies that separate but congruent lines of forensic evidence, discussed herein and elsewhere7 compels the conclusion that President Kennedy was killed by a gunshot that emanated from the Grassy Knoll. Contrary to the usual narrative, all of the forensic science is firmly on the side of conspiracy. There is no serious scientific debate on this issue, any more than there is serious scientific debate on evolution. And it is also a sad truth that the most demonstrably dishonest, pseudo-scientific “explain-aways” are uniformly concocted on the side of the lone-nut version. To be sure, there is no deficit of opinions un-tethered to fact on either side of the controversy. The article by Richard Reiman is a combination of both. It is not an isolated aberration, only the most recent.
Reiman anchors his essay to the Zapruder film and entitles his article “Six shots in Dallas,” a thinly disguised smear directed at the assiduously researched book “Six seconds in Dallas” by Josiah Thompson.8 A more apt title would have been, “Believe me, not your lying eyes.” Rieman argues that the events shown in the Zapruder film should not be taken at their face value. The rearward snap of the President’s head can be explained as a recoil; that if the single bullet theory is true, then there was no conspiracy; and finally, that the acoustical evidence for a gunshot from the grassy knoll has been discredited. To bolster these claims Reiman offers sophistry, non sequiturs, and errors of both commission and omission. It is clear from his essay that Reiman has no working knowledge of the Zapruder film. No, the double 8 mm Zapruder film is not 35 mm. And no, the Warren Commission was not the first analysis of the Zapruder film. That would be found in the FBI’s summary report9 published on 9 December 1963 when the Warren Commission was yet a gleam in Lyndon Johnson’s eye. Reiman pushes the false narrative that the opposing interpretations of the Zapruder film are between officialdom and conspiracist perpetrators who refuse to “contextualize” their opinions with other evidence. Reiman’s omission of the FBI report serves to disguise the fact that the two official government versions of the assassination were diametrically opposed to one another, as noted in the complaint sent by J. Edgar Hoover to Earl Warren when the latter’s report was published. There is no question as to which version is correct because both reports are in material conflict with the real evidence, including the events seen in the Zapruder film that Reiman dismisses as fraught with “a Rorschach-like ambiguity.”
To the point, the six shots in Reiman’s title consist of the three officially allowed gunshots and three supposedly corresponding frames from the Zapruder film. But Reiman’s chosen frames are: Z-313 (okay), Z-224 (okay) and Z-235 (WTH). What happened to Z-210, which according to the Warren Commission was the time of the first shot? According to Reiman Z-frame-235 was the first to capture Governor Connally’s reaction to a shot. This is not correct. Photo-grammetric research10 on the film, including the analysis by the photographic evidence panel of experts for the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) and by the ITEK Corporation, featured in the CBS program cited by Reiman, noted that Connally’s posture stiffened at Z-225, followed by the flip of his Stetson hat held in his right hand at Z-228, most likely caused by the missile that struck his wrist. Reiman’s selection of Z-235 seems to be a concoction to help support his false narrative about Z-frame 224.
Regarding the latter Reiman cites a computer study by Failure Analysis Associates11, or more accurately serial plagiarist12 Gerald Posner’s version of the study, as providing “mathematical certainty” for the single bullet theory. Of course, it did no such thing. Contracted by the American Bar Association for a mock trial, Failure Analysis presented both sides of the single bullet controversy. Failure Analysis rediscovered a fact long known to conspiracy buffs; that at Z-frame 224 the lapel on Governor Connally’s jacket flapped outward. Their trajectory analysis provided compelling evidence that the victims aligned in such a way at Z-224 that a single-bullet could have struck and passed through both men. The problem is that if such a thing happened (and some prominent conspiracy realists accept that it did) then CE-567, the shattered carcano bullet found in the limousine near Governor Connally’s seat was the most forensically likely candidate. And if so, ipso facto, one arrives at too many shooters and conspiracy. The Warren Commission version, a construct by its junior counsel Arlen Specter, was designed to explain away CE-399, the “magic” bullet. Firstly, there is no evidence that connects CE-399 to anyone’s wounds. The bullet was discovered on a wheeled cot at Parkland hospital on the afternoon of the assassination. The FBI opined that the cot was one used to bring President Kennedy to the emergency room. In contrast, and without supporting evidence, the Warren Commission concluded that it was a cot used for Governor Connally.13 In fact, the bullet was found on a cot with a stethoscope belonging to a nurse who had not treated either man.14 Secondly, other than being slightly out of round, CE-399 was undamaged. Forensic tests by the US Army’s weapons testing branch on behalf of the Warren Commission (and not disclosed by them) showed that whereas the deformation velocity of a Carcano bullet striking bone is 1400 fps (or 1100 fps if striking sideways) the bullet which hit Connally in the rib after passing through JFK’s neck was at least 1700 fps.15 Confirmatory tests in which goats were shot in the rib cage, after passing through a simulated neck, always resulted in the Carcano bullets being significantly deformed. Thirdly, forensic chemistry inculpates CE-567 and excluded CE-399 as the perpetrator of Connally’s wounds. Using Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis, significant quantities of lead at the exit hole in Connally’s shirt front and the reentry hole in the shirt sleeve were found,16 consistent with the exposed lead core of a deformed or broken bullet (such as the one actually found in the limousine) exiting the Governor and inconsistent with an intact copper jacketed Carcano bullet such as CE-399. Connally’s wrist injury was a laceration with metal fragments and fibers of cloth from the shirt carried into the wound, a scenario indicative of a broken rather than a smooth intact bullet such as CE-399.
Reiman’s misrepresentation of Z-frame-224 cannot be blamed on Failure Analysis or Gerald Posner. Reiman cites JFK’s “Thorburn Position” as the reason for selecting Z-224. FYI, there is no such thing as a “Thorburn” position. Ask any neurobiologist or anyone expert on spinal cord injury. It is a term made up by conspiracy denier John Lattimer17 seeking to make it look like there was a scientific explanation for why President Kennedy folded his arms in front of his body following the shot that struck the lateral process of his seventh cervical vertebra. The expectation from all medical knowledge and experience is concussion of the spinal cord resulting in an immediate flaccid paralysis rendering one incapable of arm movement. Lattimer seized upon a nineteenth century woodcut published by William Thorburn18 of a patient suffering a bilateral contracture in flexion, a condition characteristic of the recovery phase weeks and months after a spinal cord injury. It is not and cannot be the immediate and direct consequence of a transective or concussive injury to the spinal cord. Nor could the President have uttered his last words, “My God, I’m hit!” as recounted by secret service agent Roy Kellerman, seated near him in the limousine, inasmuch as the bullet had egressed through his larynx. Kennedy’s reaction, and words, shows that he had not been shot through the neck at this point. Rather he was displaying a classic startle reaction, a.k.a, the Moro Reflex, in which one assumes the posture known as the foetal position, which includes folding the arms in front of the body. In his false narrative Rieman combines the “Thorburn” fantasy with the single bullet theory stating,
“Moreover, Kennedy’s strange, sudden shift from a wave to an almost crossed arm position in frame 224 also supports the single bullet theory.”
But contrary to Reiman’s assertion Kennedy’s startle reaction occurred much sooner. In another error of omission Reiman ignored the analysis of the Zapruder film published in the Journal of Forensic Science in 1971 by UC Berkeley physicists Don Olson and Ralph Turner.19 This study documented that JFK’s arm movement shifted from the wave at Rosemary Willis to fold in front of his body at Z-194, not Z-210 as claimed by the FBI and the Warren Commission, nor at Z-224 as claimed by Reiman. The FBI falsified the wounding sequence because JFK’s reaction occurred at a time when the foliage of a live-oak tree blocked the view of the limousine on Elm Street from the sixth floor window of the Book Depository. The FBI’s objective was to frame Lee Harvey Oswald. Based on the title, the objective of Reiman’s article is much the same.
One of the great mysteries of the JFK assassination is how otherwise rational people could have convinced themselves that the rearward movement of Kennedy’s head could be explained as a jet propulsion recoil. Where was the skepticism that should have followed from the fact that officialdom had suppressed both the Zapruder film and the autopsy photos, and had then lied about both, claiming that the President had suffered a “through-and-through bullet hole” near the occipital protuberance in the back of his cranium, and that “…the president fell forward, bleeding from the head.” Specifically, in the split second from the point of impact at Z-313 to Z-221 the presidents head went ten inches rearward. One does not have to be a rocket scientist to understand momentum; it is an everyday part of experience. We have all caught a baseball, or been bowling, or if one is not athletically inclined then have bumped into things. When an object in motion strikes another object, it pushes it in the same direction of movement. Thus, when Kennedy’s head is driven backward, as shown in the Zapruder film, it provides prima facie evidence that the shot came from the front, dovetailing with the “ear” witness accounts that shots emanated from the grassy knoll. The explain-away, jet-recoil theory was the brainchild of physicist Luis Alvarez. Alvarez had already staked a considerable part of his scientific reputation on the thesis that there was no conspiracy when he appeared on national television to put a Warren Commission friendly spin on Olson and Turner’s study with the oak-tree problem. Alvarez’ jet-recoil thesis was based on knowledge that a bullet striking human flesh distributes two forces: momentum, delivering a push away from the shooter, and kinetic energy directed radial to the bullets path. Alvarez knew that the latter was the more powerful, and that it is the cause of the terminal ballistic phenomenon called “cavitation.” Alvarez also knew that under just the right circumstances the cavitation could be translated into pressure and that the pressure could be translated into thrust. And, in theory at least, the thrust could be vectored in essentially any direction, even the direction opposite to the momentum. Writing in the American Journal of Physics,20 Alvarez explained his theory with equations, calculus and algorithms. What he did not do is insert values into those equations to show that the theory was plausible; values such as the weight of a human head, or the velocity and mass of a rifle bullet. Had he done so, he would have shown that it won’t work. So instead, he rigged an experiment using a melon and a hunting rifle to demonstrate his point in principle; fair enough. But then he crossed over to the dark side by claiming that melons and hunting loads were a realistic model system that could explain JFK’s head movement. In doing so Alvarez had cheated on both sides of the equation. By using hot loaded .30-06 rounds instead of the under-powered Carcano bullets found in the alleged murder weapon, he more than doubled the kinetic energy. And by using a melon, which doesn’t have a bone inside, he reduced the target resistance and thus the absorption of momentum, compared to a human head, by an order of magnitude. Reiman, who cites the work of Lattimer on “Thorburn,” overlooked that Lattimer21 provided empirical evidence against the jet-recoil theory by shooting melons with Carcano rounds – and producing no recoil. If the Carcano round could not thrust a melon, then there is no way it could move a human head which weighs three times as much. Not to mention, that in order for the jet recoil explanation to be viable the jetsam would have been necessarily jettisoned from an exit hole in JFK’s face. Hence the theory became, or should have become, obsolete when the autopsy photos surfaced, proving not only that was there no exit wound in the President’s face, but no entrance wound next to the occipital protuberance in the back of his head either. Instead, the autopsy photos show an apparent entrance wound in the right temple,22 just as the initial reports23 from Dallas said there was. And, as corroboration, the lateral x-ray from the autopsy shows the bullet’s track through the cranium as a trail of bullet dust aligning with the entrance wound in the right temple.22
The straight-forward, face-value filmed evidence is further corroborated by the acoustical evidence for five gunshots found on the Dallas Police tapes. But unable to contextualize the facts deriving from independent lines of evidence, Reiman discounts the analysis of the recordings of the gunfire as “subsequently discredited” without bothering to cite a source. For the record, the source was the aforementioned Luis Alvarez and allies. And also, for the record, in none of the studies published by Alvarez and his fellow perps, were they able to cite a single error, flaw or mistake in the factual evidence, the methodology, or the analysis by the HSCA’s acoustical experts. Rather, the critics argue that their conclusion must be wrong, a false positive, because the sounds identified as gunshots are not, according to them, synchronous with the time of the assassination. In point of fact, just the opposite is true.
Researchers Gary Mack and Mary Farrell discovered that the assassination gunfire had been captured by an open microphone on a police motorcycle in the President’s motorcade. In 1978, on the advice of the Acoustical Society of America, the HSCA contracted with the expert firm of Bolt, Baranek & Newman to analyze the police recording. Famed for their work on the Kent State shooting and the Watergate tapes, the scientists at BBN developed, patented and ultimately deployed the anti-sniper “boomerang” device used by our military. Application of that same technology, which uses the acoustical signature of the gunshot to locate the sniper, enabled the identification of the assassination gunshots on the Dallas police tapes including one that emanated from the grassy knoll. Certain that the conclusions would be challenged, the HSCA dutifully sought a second expert opinion. Again, on the recommendation of the ASA, sonar experts with the Computer Science Department of Queens College were contracted to assess the evidence and analysis. The second expert group not only confirmed the findings of the first, but applying sonar techniques, expanded on the analysis to show that the detection of a shot from the grassy knoll was even stronger than realized. The first lab, BBN, had shown that the sound patterns on the police tape matched to test shots fired in Dealey Plaza, one of them specifically to a shot fired from the grassy knoll. The second lab dissected the latter sound pattern to correlate each impulse with an echo producing structure on the northeast side of the plaza. But the most compelling evidence was the order in the matching data. That is, each putative gunshot on the police tape matched to a test shot recorded at a microphone position coherent with a motorcycle traveling along the motorcade’s route through Dealey Plaza.24 Not surprisingly, the audio sequence of gunfire exactly matches the video sequence of wounding seen in the Zapruder film. Specifically, the wounding events at Z-224 and Z-313 are exactly 4.8 sec apart in the video, and the grassy knoll shot and the immediately preceding Book Depository shot are exactly 4.8 sec apart on the audio record.
The assertion that the “gunshots” identified by the acoustical experts are non-synchronous with the time of the assassination relies on an anomaly in the recordings. The Dallas police were communicating over two separate frequencies. The sounds identified as gunfire are on Channel 1, the primary police channel. The broadcasts from the motorcade in Dealey Plaza are on Ch-2, an auxiliary channel. The suspect sound patterns on Ch-1 must be simultaneous with the corresponding events on Ch-2 if they are truly the assassination gunfire, and of course they are. A sequence of broadcasts on Ch-2 originating from the pilot car just ahead of the President’s limousine fix the time of the assassination; specifically with the announcement by Police Chief Jesse Curry that he was, “approaching the Triple Underpass.” The Triple Underpass is the Dealey Plaza landmark flanked by the Grassy Knoll. In close sequence the radio dispatcher announced the time as “12:30” followed twelve seconds later when Curry barked the orders, “Go to the Hospital, officers…Parkland Hospital” The Zapruder film, and others, shows the pilot car approaching the Triple Underpass at the time of the shooting. Near the end of the Zapruder film the pilot car stopped in the underpass and waited for the limousine to pull along-side. It was then that Chief Curry knew that the President had been hit and ordered the police to escort the limo to Parkland. If the sounds identified by the acoustical experts are truly the assassination gunfire, it would have been captured on Ch-1 simultaneous with the key “Triple-Underpass” broadcast on Ch-2, and so they are. The gunshot sounds on Ch-1 occur 121 sec after the dispatcher announced the time as 12:28, making it closely coincident with the CH-2 dispatcher’s time notation at 12:30. More precisely, the broadcast immediately preceding the Triple-Underpass broadcast by two seconds on Ch-2 came from deputy chief Fisher saying, “Naw, that’s alright, I’ll check it.” Through a radio phenomenon called “cross-talk” some of the utterances on Ch-2 had leaked over on to Ch-1. A fragment of that broadcast, “I’ll check it,” occurs two seconds before the first putative gunshot on Ch-1, providing a tie-point and exact synchroneity between the gunshots and the assassination. But Alvarez et al.25 found another instance of cross-talk more to their liking. Approximately 78 sec after “Triple-Underpass” the Dallas County Sheriff gave orders to surround the grassy knoll and “…hold everything secure until homicide can get in there…” A fragment of that utterance, the words “…hold everything secure…” bled over onto Ch-1, and is found virtually synchronous with the last alleged gunshot. Alvarez et al. insist that the latter broadcast represents the true tie-point, proving non-synchrony of the key events. It is true that the “Check” and “Hold” cross-talks are contradictory. But, the contradiction was not between the acoustical evidence and the recorded events, but rather with the timeline of the cross-talks. There are multiple crosstalk instances between the two channels and when any one is used as a tie-point, none of the others align with their counterparts across channels.26 If they don’t even synchronize with themselves they can hardly be relied upon to prove a lack of synchrony between other events. One or the other channel is a discontinuous recording causing the cross-talks to be offset from one another across channels. That being the case, the longer the time interval between any two events, the greater the chances of an offset or discontinuity in the timeline. The cross-talk closest to the assassination, and therefore the most reliable, is “I’ll Check it.” It is a measure of the honesty of the NRC report and the subsequent article by Linsker et al.27 that neither ever admits or acknowledges the synchroneity that arises from using “I’ll Check it” as the tie point between channels.
The capacity for denial on this event is so deep that it is at times layered, with one fantasy built upon another. For his book on Kennedy, Larry Sabato28 contracted with a consultant firm for an independent assessment of the acoustical evidence. Unable to penetrate the dense core of acoustical data, other than to repeat the NRC panel’s complaint that it must be a false positive, the firm “Sonalysts,” took a tangential approach and found corroboration in the motorcycle noise. Yes, corroboration. Specifically, two seconds before the assassination gunfire the motorcycle motor noise dropped by 75%. It then continued at low and seemingly idle level for about 40 sec before revving up and returning to pre-assassination noise levels. Had it occurred to the technicians at Sonalysts to match this audio record to the video record they would have found that it closely matched the actions of motorcycle patrolman H.B. McLain who can be seen in the Darnell film idling down Elm Street about 18 sec after the shooting. In succession McLain is seen passing the parked motorcycle of officer Billy Hargis who had stopped to search the grassy knoll for the shooter (the Bond Photo), and then as patrolman J.W. Courson pulled alongside him, about 40 sec after the drop in noise, the pair sped up and raced out of Dealey Plaza (the Cancellare photo).29 The acoustical matching places the motorcycle entering the intersection at Elm and Houston at the time of the first shot. Thus, the slowing of the motorcycle motor is consistent with McLain anticipating the hard left turn on to Elm, and the 40 sec of idle motor in the audio record is consistent with McLain’s motion and position in the filmed record. But instead of using the acoustically identified gunshots on Ch-1, or the “I’ll check it” broadcast for the time of the assassination, Sonalysts used the misaligned broadcast of “Hold everything secure” which is 87 sec after the “I’ll Check it” broadcast on Ch-2. Using the misaligned broadcast as their anchor made it appear that at the time of the shooting the motorcycle was moving at high speed, when the acoustics required that it was traveling at an average of 11-12 mph. So in other words, instead of using an independent and separate line of evidence (the films) to assess the opposing timelines of events from the two cross-talks on the police tape, Sonalysts relied on Alvarez’ false argument, found it consistent with its own view, and declared it correct. In logic this is referred to as a tautology; the vernacular term is less family-friendly.
One final point should be made because Rieman’s article is unfair to one of the most intellectually honest people in this whole business. Contrary to Reiman’s statement, Professor Josiah Thompson did not sketch frames from the Zapruder film from memory for his book, nor was his analysis strictly dependent on the Zapruder film. Reiman dismisses Thompson’s analysis insisting that Thompson had admitted to misinterpreting the film. Again, the truth is the opposite. For his book Thompson measured the direction of JFK’s head movement during the critical frames and found that although the head went backwards from 313 to 321, indicating a shot from the front, the head actually went forward between Z-312 and 313, a movement possibly induced by a shot from the rear as the Warren Commission had claimed. Thus, Thompson forthrightly admitted that the forward movement might be explained by a first, near simultaneous shot from the rear. Thompson was compelled to drop the latter point of view when further studies documented that Kennedy’s forward head movement, along with the heads of everyone else in the limousine (none of whom were shot in the head), began much earlier as a result of the driver hitting the brakes, around Z-frame 300 according to Luis Alvarez. So according to Reiman we should disregard the work of analysts who revise their views to fit new information. And instead of looking to consistency among separate lines of evidence, and corroboration in scientific forensic analyses, we should accord equal or more weight to the “explain-aways.” The Magic Bullet theory, the Jet Propulsion Recoil theory, Thorburn’s position, are all bunkum, or to use a modern term, “fake news.”
The gunshot that killed President Kennedy emanated from the grassy knoll, and thus, there was a conspiracy. It is time to set aside the denials and explain-aways, accept the facts for what they are, get over it, and move on. Serious research is focusing now on the identity of the perpetrators and their motives. The truth will set us free.
- Reiman, R. 2019. Six “Shots” in Dallas: “Framing” the perpetrator of the Kennedy Assassination through the Zapruder Film, 1963-2013. Journal of Perpetrator Research 2.2: 180-206.
- Knittel, S. 2015. The Historical Uncanny: Disability, Ethnicity and the Politics of Holocaust Memory. Fordham University Press.
- Zelizer, B. 1992. Covering the Body: the Kennedy Assassination, the Media, and the shaping of collective memory. Univ. Chicago Press.
- Warren, E. 1977. The Memoirs of Earl Warren, Doubleday, Garden City, NY.
- re: Commissioners Richard Russell and John Sherman Cooper in, Epstein, E. J. 1966. Inquest: the Warren Commission and the establishment of truth. Bantam, N.Y. re: Commissioner Hale Boggs, in Fensterwald, B. 1977. Coincidence or conspiracy. Kensington, N.Y.
- U.S. Congress, House of Representatives. 1979. Investigation of the Assassination of John F. Kennedy. Select Committee on Assassinations. 95th Congress. House Report 95-1828. U.S. Gov. Print. Off. Wash. DC.
- Thomas, D.B. 2010. Hear no Evil. Skyhorse,
- Thompson, J. 1967. Six Seconds in Dallas: a micro-study of the Kennedy Assassination. Bernard Getz Assoc. Berkeley CA.
- Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Dept. Justice (Summary Report). 1963. Investigation of Assassination of President John F. Kennedy November 22, 1963. Warren Commission Hearings & Exhibits (1964) Vol. 1. Document 1. 400 pp. U.S. Gov. Print. Off. Wash. DC.
- HSCA Hearings vol. 6, p. 17. See also ITEK analysis for CBS program mentioned by Reiman, summarized in: Trask, R.B. 1994. Pictures of the Pain: photography and the assassination of President Kennedy. Yeoman, Danvers MA.
- Posner, G. 1994. Case Closed: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK. Random House, New York, NY.
- Elfrink, T. 2013. Posner Plagiarizes Again. Miami New Times, 20 May 2010. https://www.miaminewtimes.com/news/posner-plagiarizes-again-6367387
- Warren Commission. 1964. The Report of the President’s Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. U.S. Gov. Print. Off. Wash. DC.
- Thompson (1967) p. 177. See also Warren Commission Exhibit 1024 and HSCA vol. 7, p. 356.
- HSCA Hearings vol. 1, p. 396.
- HSCA Hearings vol. 7, pp. 239-240.
- Lattimer, J. 1980. Kennedy and Lincoln, Medical and Ballistic Comparisons of their Assassinations. Harcourt-Brace-Jovanovich. New York, NY.
- Thorburn, W. 1889. Cases of injury to the cervical region of the spinal cord: position of the elbows after injury to C-6 (level confirmed at autopsy). Brain 9 (1887): 510-543.
- Olson, D. & R.F. Turner. 1971. Photographic evidence and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. J. Forensic Science 16: 399-419.
- Alvarez, L.W. 1976. A Physicist Examines the Kennedy Assassination Film. American J. Physics 44: 813-827.
- Lattimer, J.K. J. Lattimer & G. Lattimer 1976. An experimental study of the backward movement of President Kennedy’s head. Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics 142: 246-254.
- The photo is available online and is reprinted in, Aguilar, G & C. Wecht. 2015. Junk Science and the death of JFK. Accessed at: aarclibrary.org/dr-gary-aguilar-junk-science-and-the-death-of-jfk/
- Warren Commission Exhibit 392, the Parkland Hospital admissions report of 22 Nov. 1963 by Dr. Robert McClelland states that the cause of death was “a gunshot wound of the left temple.” [yes, he confused left with his other left]. At the Dallas press conference that afternoon white house press secretary Malcolm Kilduff stated that white house physician George Burkley had told him that the President had been shot in the right temple. “It is my understanding that it entered in the temple, the right temple.”
- U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Select Committee on Assassinations 1979. Investigation of the Assassination of John F. Kennedy. Report 94-465. (Acoustics in Hearings Vol. 8).
- National Research Council. 1982. Report on the Committee on Ballistic Acoustics. No. PB83-218461. U.S. Dept. Commerce. Natl. Tech, Info. Serv. Springfield VA.
- Thomas, D.B. 2001. Echo-correlation analysis and the acoustical evidence in the Kennedy Assassination revisited. Science & Justice 41: 21-32.
- Linsker, R., R.W. Garwin, H. Chernoff, P. Horowitz & N.F. Ramsey. 2005. Synchronization of the acoustic evidence in the assassination of President Kennedy. Science & Justice 45: 207-226.
- Sabato, L.J. 2013. The Kennedy Half-Century: the Presidency, Assassination and Lasting Legacy of John F. Kennedy. Bloomsbury. New York, NY.
- Details on the filmed evidence of McLain’s motorcycle can be found in, Trask, R.B. 1994. Pictures of the Pain: photography and the assassination of President Kennedy. Yeoman Press, Danvers MA.